The Temple of Olympian Zeus with river Ilisos by Edward Dodwell, 1821. In the northern suburb of Maroussi, the upgraded main Olympic Complex (known by its Greek acronym OAKA) dominates the skyline. After the establishment of the modern Greek state, and partly due to the conservatism of the written language, Ἀθῆναι [aˈθine] again became the official name of the city and remained so until the abandonment of Katharevousa in the 1970s, when Ἀθήνα, Athína, became the official name. The city is also home to the Demokritos laboratory for Archaeometry, alongside regional and national archaeological authorities that form part of the Greek Department of Culture. Athens is a Beta global city according to the Globalization and World Cities Research Network, and is one of the biggest economic centers in southeastern Europe. The cities in Greece bear monuments belonging to the Jewish, Roman, Ottoman, and Byzantine settlement. Along with national institutions, such as the Athens University and the Archaeological Society, there are multiple archaeological Museums including the National Archaeological Museum, the Cycladic Museum, the Epigraphic Museum, the Byzantine & Christian Museum, as well as museums at the ancient Agora, Acropolis, Kerameikos, and the Kerameikos Archaeological Museum. The municipality (Center) of Athens is the most populous in Greece, with a population of 664,046 people (in 2011) and an area of 38.96 km2 (15.04 sq mi), forming the core of the Athens Urban Area within the Attica Basin. Parnitha National Park is punctuated by well-marked paths, gorges, springs, torrents and caves dotting the protected area. Athens is the capital city of Greece, a vast metropolis that still stands tall bearing thousands of years of history and culture. Its main section extends from the western industrial suburb of Elefsina to Athens International Airport; while two beltways, namely the Aigaleo Beltway (A65) and the Hymettus Beltway (A64) serve parts of western and eastern Athens respectively. Notable composers of operettas or nocturnes were Kostas Giannidis, Dionysios Lavrangas, Nikos Hatziapostolou, while Theophrastos Sakellaridis' The Godson remains probably the most popular operetta.  There are also some inter-municipal centres serving specific areas. However, Athens, like many other Bronze Age settlements, went into economic decline for around 150 years afterwards. The oldest known human presence in Athens is the Cave of Schist, which has been dated to between the 11th and 7th millennia BC. 201–216. Athens is one of the major economic centres in south-eastern Europe and is considered as a regional economic power in Europe generally.  The Stavros Niarchos Foundation Cultural Center, inaugurated in 2016, will house the National Library of Greece and the Greek National Opera.. In addition to building a raft of new sports venues and facilities (including a stadium designed by Santiago Calatrava), Athens undertook massive transportation infrastructure improvements that included dramatic expansion of public transportation and the construction of a new international airport. Its network consists of about 300 bus lines and 22 trolleybus lines which span the Athens Metropolitan Area, with a fleet of 1,839 buses and 366 trolleybuses. , Athens is the major transportation hub of Greece.  The expansion to Piraeus will include 12 new stations, increase the overall length of tram route by 5.4 km (3 mi), and increase the overall transportation network. It was September 18, 1834, when by decree of Otto’s regency, Athens was declared the capital of the young Greek state. It employs a staff of 14,000.. For the Athenians, all the urban municipalities surrounding the City Centre are called suburbs. Other forms of song popular today in Greece are elafrolaika, entechno, dimotika, and skyladika. of the 10th International Conference on Meteorology, Climatology and Atmospheric Physics, Patras, Greece, 25–28 May 2010, pp. Athens has a long tradition in sports and sporting events, serving as home to the most important clubs in Greek sport and housing a large number of sports facilities. The University of West Attica is the second largest university in Athens. Athens has hosted the EuroLeague final three times, the first in 1985 and second in 1993, both at the Peace and Friendship Stadium, most known as SEF, a large indoor arena, and the third time in 2007 at the Olympic Indoor Hall. Capital Facts for Athens, Greece July 4, 2020 by Danny Metrics Greece flag One of the world’s oldest cities given its more 3,400 years in existence, Athens is the capital of the Hellenic Republic more commonly known as Greece. Kifissos provides connections towards Peloponnese, North Greece, West Greece and some Ionian Islands, whereas Liosion is used for most of Central Greece. Athens had by this time become a significant naval power with a large fleet, and helped the rebellion of the Ionian cities against Persian rule. The Entry of King Otto in Athens, Peter von Hess, 1839. The population of the unincorporated communities below is not mentioned here. Updates? It has a fleet of 35 Sirio type vehicles which serve 48 stations, employ 345 people with an average daily occupancy of 65,000 passengers.  In modern times, Athens is a large cosmopolitan metropolis and central to economic, financial, industrial, maritime, political and cultural life in Greece. Athens has hosted the Summer Olympic Games twice, in 1896 and 2004. It is the largest city in the country and one of the oldest cities in the world.  In addition to a large number of multiplexes, Athens plays host to open air garden cinemas. Athens is the financial capital of Greece. Nevertheless, it is wrong to say that Athens is a mixture of East and West: it is Greek and, more particularly, Athenian. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. Proc. It has been the official capital of Greece since 1834 when the capital was moved there from the Greek city of Nafplio.  It also ranks as a very safe city (39th globally out of 162 cities overall) on the ranking of the safest and most dangerous countries.  A 2019 crime index from Numbeo places Athens at 130th position, rating safer than Tampa, Florida or Dublin, Ireland. 9 Both Israel and Palestine claim Jerusalem as their capital and its unresolved status is one …  The urban heat island of the city has also been found to be partially responsible for alterations of the climatological temperature time-series of specific Athens meteorological stations, because of its impact on the temperatures and the temperature trends recorded by some meteorological stations.  In an alternative version of the myth from Vergil's Georgics, Poseidon instead gave the Athenians the first horse. It is also the busiest passenger port in Europe and one of the largest passenger ports in the world. The network covers the majority of the Athens coastline. The Athens case".  King Alphonse X of Castile gives the pseudo-etymology 'the one without death/ignorance'. The capital of Greece, Athens, is a very easy place to walk around. All over the city can be found several statues or busts. [atʰɛ̂ːnai̯]) is the capital and largest city of Greece. The Saronic Gulf lies to the southwest. Aiming to form a city accessible to all, the municipality has created more ramps in Athens’ neighborhoods including the city center; new parking spaces for the disabled with special signage; and support services. The line 2 (Red Line) runs from Anthoupoli station to Elliniko station and covers a distance of 17.5 km (10.9 mi). Athens is also home to several museums and cultural institutions, such as the National Archeological Museum, featuring the world's largest collection of ancient Greek antiquities, the Acropolis Museum, the Museum of Cycladic Art, the Benaki Museum and the Byzantine and Christian Museum. Also to be found is the Pedion tou Areos (Field of Mars) of 27.7 hectares, near the National Archaeological Museum. Lycabettus, Philopappos hill and the area around it, including Pnyx and Ardettos hill, are planted with pines and other trees, with the character of a small forest rather than typical metropolitan parkland. There are also transfer connections with the Blue Line 3 at Syntagma station and with the tram at Syntagma, Syngrou Fix and Neos Kosmos stations. During the 1920s a number of Greek refugees, expelled from Asia Minor after the Greco-Turkish War, swelled Athens's population; nevertheless it was most particularly following World War II, and from the 1950s and 1960s, that the population of the city exploded, and Athens experienced a gradual expansion. Of the venues used for these Olympics, the Kallimarmaro Stadium, and Zappeion were most crucial. "On the impact of Urban Climate to the Energy Consumption of Buildings". Europe’s oldest city, Athens, charms visitors with its relaxed atmosphere, vibrant street life and incredible monuments, museums and sights. Areas to Avoid and Other Warnings", "Worldwide Quality of Living ranking 2019", "Founda D. (2011). International links are provided by a number of private companies. The line 1 (Green Line) serves 24 stations, and is the oldest line of the Athens metro network. The incumbent Mayor of Athens is Kostas Bakoyannis of New Democracy.  It was possibly rendered in the plural later on, like those of Θῆβαι (Thêbai) and Μυκῆναι (Μukênai).  Athenians were called cicada-wearers (Ancient Greek: Τεττιγοφόροι) because they used to wear pins of golden cicadas. and Katsoulis B.D. , The 2004 Games were judged a success, as both security and organization worked well, and only a few visitors reported minor problems mainly concerning accommodation issues.  The four regional units that make up what is referred to as Greater Athens have a combined population of 2,640,701. Stathopoulou M., Cartalis C., Andritsos A. Athens is the capital city of Greece and the administrative region of Attica. Athens City, Greece Photo by: Andrew®, Creative Commons Athens, the capital city of Greece, has the distinction of being one of the oldest cities in the world. Nikos Gounaris was probably the most renowned composer and singer of the time.  In both versions, Athena offered the Athenians the first domesticated olive tree. The Panathenaic Stadium of Athens (Kallimarmaron) dates back to the 4th century BC and has hosted the first modern Olympic Games in 1896.  This issue is not unique to Athens; for instance, Los Angeles and Mexico City also suffer from similar atmospheric inversion problems.. They are often to be found in the same areas, as Athens is not marked by a uniformity of architectural style. By this process Athens has engulfed many former suburbs and villages in Attica, and continues to do so. ... GCT takes you on a beautiful festive journey through Athens, showing you what Greece’s capital city looked like during the Christmas period of the 1960s! The essential guide to the capital city of Athens, Greece. In late June 2007, the Attica region experienced a number of brush fires, including a blaze that burned a significant portion of a large forested national park in Mount Parnitha, considered critical to maintaining a better air quality in Athens all year round.  Beyond the dimensions of its passenger capacity, ATH handled 205,294 total flights in 2007, or approximately 562 flights per day.. It actually sprawls over the whole peninsula of Attica, which is the best part of the region of Attica, excluding the islands. The modern version has a population of 4.5 million people and while falling on tough economic times, that hasn’t changed the fact that Athens might still be Europe’s greatest city to visit. Athens: Acropolis. In 1458 it was conquered by the Ottoman Empire and entered a long period of decline. "Mesoscale and macroscale aspects of the morning Urban Heat Island around Athens, Greece", Meteorology and Atmospheric Physics, 94, pp. , The major waste management efforts undertaken in the last decade (particularly the plant built on the small island of Psytalia) have greatly improved water quality in the Saronic Gulf, and the coastal waters of Athens are now accessible again to swimmers. Globalization and World Cities Research Network, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Names of European cities in different languages: A, Eleftherios Venizelos International Airport, List of twin towns and sister cities in Greece, New Athens Township, St. Clair County, Illinois, Athens Township, Bradford County, Pennsylvania, Athens Township, Crawford County, Pennsylvania, Athens University of Economics and Business, Panteion University of Social and Political Sciences, School of Pedagogical and Technological Education, Stavros Niarchos Foundation Cultural Center, The Stavros Niarchos Foundation Cultural Centre, population exchange between Greece and Turkey, "Regions and Cities at a Glance 2018 – Greece", "Contents and Principles of the Programme of Unification of the Archaeological Sites of Athens", "Greece uncovers 'holy grail' of Greek archeology", "Port of the month: Piraeus Port Authority", "Population & housing census 2001 (incl. For treatment of the city in its regional setting, see Greece; historical and cultural aspects are treated further in the article ancient Greek civilization. Iron Age burials, in the Kerameikos and other locations, are often richly provided for and demonstrate that from 900 BC onwards Athens was one of the leading centres of trade and prosperity in the region. Athens has been a destination for travellers since antiquity. Greece attracted 26.5 million visitors in 2015, 30.1 million visitors in 2017 and over 33 million in 2018, making Greece one of the most visited countries in Europe and the world, and contributing 18% to the nation's Gross Domestic Product. Athens is the oldest capital city in Europe. It has been continuously inhabited for the past 4,500 years, with a recorded history spanning about 3,400 years. The population of the municipality of Athens is 741,512 (in 2001 ), but its metropolitan area is much larger and comprises a population of 3.7 million (in 2005 ). In 2000 the Organising Committee's president was replaced by Gianna Angelopoulos-Daskalaki, who was the president of the original Bidding Committee in 1997. International Conference "Passive and Low Energy Cooling for the Built Environment", May 2005, Santorini, Greece, pp. In this quiz you’ll be presented with the names of 195 capital cities. It is the 23rd most-populous city in the United States.. Named for Francis Nash, a general of the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War, the city was founded in 1779. , Tourism is also a great contributor for the economy of the city, which is considered as one of the top destinations in Europe for city-break tourism and is also the gateway for excursions to the islands or the mainland. by Paul Antonopoulos. The Athens commuter rail service, referred to as the "Proastiakós", connects Eleftherios Venizelos International Airport to the city of Kiato, 106 km (66 mi) west of Athens, via Larissa station, the city's central rail station and the port of Piraeus. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. Lycabettus is one of the tallest hills of the city proper and provides a view of the entire Attica Basin. Extensions are under construction to the west southwest suburbs of Athens, as far as the port of Piraeus. Athens, with its tall buildings and contemporary shops, is the first European city when approached from the Middle East. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. Many of them are accredited by a foreign state or university such as the American College of Greece and the Athens Campus of the University of Indianapolis.. As a whole the economy of Athens and Greece has been severely hit with today's data showing a change from long recession to growth of 1.4% in 2017.  Until 2010, these four regional units made up the abolished Athens Prefecture. Athens became the capital of Greece in 1834, following Nafplion, which was the provisional capital from 1829. Many of the southern suburbs (such as Alimos, Palaio Faliro, Elliniko, Glyfada, Voula, Vouliagmeni and Varkiza) known as the Athens Riviera, host a number of sandy beaches, most of which are operated by the Greek National Tourism Organisation and require an entrance fee. Discover Athens's best spots, attractions, worthseeing, hotels, restaurants, products, hidden paths. This suggests a total population of 431,000. In 1896, the city had a population of 123,000 and the event helped boost the city's international profile. "The impact of climate change and urban heat islands on the occurrence of extreme events in cities. Athens Capital Hotel, located in the ideal place in the heart of Athens on Syndagma Square next to the Parliament House, is your perfect choice for an eco-urban break to discover the city vibes. In the ensuing Greco-Persian Wars Athens, together with Sparta, led the coalition of Greek states that would eventually repel the Persians, defeating them decisively at Marathon in 490 BC, and crucially at Salamis in 480 BC. However the numbers would include all of Athenian territory which consisted almost entirely of modern Attica region expect the territory of the city-state of Megaris and the island section. Later, under Rome, Athens was given the status of a free city because of its widely admired schools. Owing to the rain shadow of the Pindus Mountains, annual precipitation of Athens is lower than most other parts of Greece, especially western Greece. Katsoulis B.D., Theoharatos G.A.  According to the account given by Pseudo-Apollodorus, Poseidon struck the ground with his trident and a salt water spring welled up. As we enter the Pre-Lenten season, the City of Athens is transformed into a colourful setting spreading streamers and Carnival fun and joy around the city. The airport is served by the Metro, the suburban rail, buses to Piraeus port, Athens' City Centre, Liosion and Kifisos Intercity bus stations and Elliniko metro's line 2 southern terminal, and also taxis. (el) (Kolonos), football club founded in 1919 with short presence in Gamma Ethniki, Athinais Kypselis [es] (Kypseli), football club founded in 1938 with short presence in Gamma Ethniki, Gyziakos (Gyzi), basketball club founded in 1937 with short presence in Beta Ethniki basketball and Aetos B.C. Beside the above clubs, inside the boundaries of Athens Municipality there are some more clubs with presence in national divisions or notable action for short periods.  Prior to this round, the cities of Buenos Aires, Stockholm and Cape Town had been eliminated from competition, having received fewer votes.. The Red Line has transfer connections with the Green Line 1 at Attiki and Omonia stations. (el) (Petralona), football club founded in 1963, with earlier presence in Beta Ethniki, Attikos F.C. In the 1980s it became evident that smog from factories and an ever-increasing fleet of automobiles, as well as a lack of adequate free space due to congestion, had evolved into the city's most important challenge. Athens is also the capital of Greece and has the most developed economy in the country. Parts of the City Centre have been redeveloped under a masterplan called the Unification of Archeological Sites of Athens, which has also gathered funding from the EU to help enhance the project. When you walk through the narrow labyrinthine streets lined with houses and mansions from the time of the Turkish occupation and the Neoclassical period (19th c.), you will have the impression of travelling with a “time machine”. Our site offers a virtual tour in athens city & tourist information such as accommodation, restaraunts, photos, 360 pictures and videos & more. 1045 South Milledge Avenue Suite 201 Athens, GA 30605 706-424-2275 NMLS# 1761782 The Cephissus river, the Ilisos and the Eridanos stream are the historical rivers of Athens. Daily average highs for July have been measured around 34 °C or 93 °F in downtown Athens, but some parts of the city may be even hotter for the higher density of buildings, such as the center, in particular, western areas due to a combination of industrialization and a number of natural factors, knowledge of which has existed since the mid-19th century. The National Garden of Athens was completed in 1840 and is a green refuge of 15.5 hectares in the centre of the Greek capital. Scholars disagree on whether the city is named for the goddess Athena, or the goddess for the city.Athens has a population of about 4 million people and is growing. This long history of passion and suffering has had considerable effect on the Athenian character. It is the largest container port in East Mediterranean Sea Basin. Guided by Pericles, who promoted the arts and fostered democracy, Athens embarked on an ambitious building program that saw the construction of the Acropolis of Athens (including the Parthenon), as well as empire-building via the Delian League. More than 240,000 people voted. The airport accommodates 65 landings and take-offs per hour, with its 24-passenger boarding bridges, 144 check-in counters and broader 150,000 m2 (1,614,587 sq ft) main terminal; and a commercial area of 7,000 m2 (75,347 sq ft) which includes cafés, duty-free shops, and a small museum.  The leading position of Athens may well have resulted from its central location in the Greek world, its secure stronghold on the Acropolis and its access to the sea, which gave it a natural advantage over inland rivals such as Thebes and Sparta.  The Athens Planetarium, located in Andrea Syngrou Avenue, in Palaio Faliro is one of the largest and best equipped digital planetaria in the world. Athens, Modern Greek Athínai, Ancient Greek Athēnai, historic city and capital of Greece. The ancient heroes, too, were vain about both themselves and honour, boasting as much about outwitting the enemy as about outfighting him. Tondo of the Aison Cup, showing the victory of Theseus over the Minotaur in the presence of Athena. The Roman Agora and the Gate of Athena in Plaka district.  The tram network spans a total length of 27 km (17 mi) and covers ten Athenian suburbs. The Greek Government, aided by the EU, has funded major infrastructure projects such as the state-of-the-art Eleftherios Venizelos International Airport, the expansion of the Athens Metro system, and the new Attiki Odos Motorway.. Athens Polytechnic uprising, against the military junta that ruled the nation from 21 April 1967 until 23 July 1974. While its main purpose is transport, it also houses Greek artifacts found during construction of the system. Line 1 mostly runs at ground level and the other two (Line 2 & 3) routes run entirely underground. Thus, the Old Royal Palace was the first important public building to be built, between 1836 and 1843. Localities with a great number of such buildings include Kolonaki, and some areas of the centre of the city; neighbourhoods developed in this period include Kypseli.. National and regional bus links are provided by KTEL from two InterCity Bus Terminals, Kifissos Bus Terminal A and Liosion Bus Terminal B, both located in the north-western part of the city.  Athens has been continuously inhabited for at least 5,000 years. For the Athenians the most popular way of dividing the downtown is through its neighbourhoods such as Pagkrati, Ambelokipi, Goudi, Exarcheia, Patissia, Ilissia, Petralona, Plaka, Anafiotika, Koukaki and Kypseli, each with its own distinct history and characteristics. In 2014, the airport handled 15,196,369 passengers, an increase of 21.2% over the previous year of 2013. , Athens ranks in the lowest percentage for the risk on frequency and severity of terrorist attacks according to the EU Global Terrorism Database (EIU 2007–2016 calculations). Solar Energy, 70, 3, pp. (2001). For the greatest part of the 19th century Neoclassicism dominated Athens, as well as some deviations from it such as Eclecticism, especially in the early 20th century. "Homepage – The Company – Attiko Metro S.A." Attiko Metro S.A. Archived from the original on 3 December 2010. Important Greek companies such as Hellenic Aerospace Industry, Hellas Sat, Mytilineos Holdings, Titan Cement, Hellenic Petroleum, Papadopoulos E.J., Folli Follie, Jumbo S.A., OPAP, and Cosmote have their headquarters in the metropolitan area of Athens. The Greek capital has a population of 745,514 (in 2001) within its Iakovides, S. 1962. Athens is the capital city of Greece. The basin is bounded by four large mountains: Mount Aigaleo to the west, Mount Parnitha to the north, Mount Pentelicus to the northeast and Mount Hymettus to the east. " A series of measures taken by the authorities of the city throughout the 1990s resulted in the improvement of air quality; the appearance of smog (or nefos as the Athenians used to call it) has become less common. To improve this article ( requires login ) headquarters also there driest months when thunderstorms sparsely. Attica periphery and it is the National Garden of Athens is the largest city Europe! Municipalities serve as the Greek Dark Ages the population of Athens the status of free... For around 150 years afterwards was to be the second time Athens would the! Giannopoulou K., Livada I., Koronakis I., santamouris M., Saliari M., Y.G! Attica Zoological park, with 4 other municipalities make up what is referred to as Greater has! Below shows the historical population of 2,640,701 companies such as Ericsson, Sony,,. The 1906 Summer Olympics, like many other Bronze Age settlements, went into decline! 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